Strict Standards: Non-static method SEBenchmark::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESmarty::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 43

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 96

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 104

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguageStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 156

Strict Standards: Declaration of SELanguageStorageMysql::edit() should be compatible with SELanguageStorage::edit() in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Declaration of SELanguageStorageMysql::get() should be compatible with SELanguageStorage::get() in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getSettings() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 107

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 28

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_url.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_url.php on line 78

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_datetime.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 125

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESessionStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/session.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Declaration of SESessionStorageNone::register() should be compatible with SESessionStorage::register($options = Array) in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/storage/none.php on line 16

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/session.php on line 600

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 509

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_admin.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::select() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 181

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 234

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 183

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 189

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getPlugins() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 229

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 62

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 73

Strict Standards: Declaration of rc_rssfeed::delete() should be compatible with rc_model::delete($id = NULL) in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_rssfeed.php on line 132

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 720

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1087

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1595

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1636

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1656

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1756

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1960

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2358

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2362

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2366

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2370

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2418

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2440

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2445

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2449

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2453

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2501

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2523

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2927

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2935

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2943

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2951

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2959

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3300

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3304

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3308

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3312

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3373

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3395

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3434

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3456

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3461

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3465

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3469

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3473

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3783

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3815

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3845

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3868

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3879

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3889

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3911

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3925

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3952

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3978

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4167

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4180

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4201

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4214

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4242

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4256

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4278

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4292

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4496

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4532

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4568

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4594

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4623

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4637

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4668

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4698

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4851

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4876

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4908

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4934

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4988

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5117

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5153

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5186

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5217

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5321

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5353

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5392

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5428

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5463

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5498

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5505

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5790

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5794

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5798

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5802

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5850

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5872

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5877

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5881

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5885

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5933

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5955

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 6392

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7588

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7649

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7730

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 12921

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 12986

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 13011

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 13574

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method rc_toolkit::get_setting() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method rc_toolkit::owner_level() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 25

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 69

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 73

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 82

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 85

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 88

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 68

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_radcodes.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_page.php on line 11

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_gmap.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 298

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 280

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 291

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 320

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 331

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 200

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 211

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 240

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 251

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getLanguages() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 96

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_languages() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 110

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 366

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::call() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 272

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%86^861^861EA998%%article.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%86^861^861EA998%%article.tpl.php on line 7

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 192

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 193

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Only variables should be passed by reference in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 177

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php on line 4

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php on line 5

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 169

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 170

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66
Researchers Develop “Brain-Reading” Methods To Uncover A Person’s Mental State - <br /> <b>Strict Standards</b>: Non-static method SELanguage::_get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in <b>/home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php</b> on line <b>16</b><br /> <br /> <b>Strict Standards</b>: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in <b>/home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php</b> on line <b>614</b><br /> insciences
Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%87^870^870F1A81%%headerx.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%87^870^870F1A81%%headerx.tpl.php on line 7

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686
Keyword Tag Sort by


Categories: Person’s Mental State Brain fMRI Brain activity Neuroimaging

Researchers Develop “Brain-Reading” Methods To Uncover A Person’s Mental State

Rutgers Research Discovery Sets Direction for Decoding Large-scale Structure of Brain.

Newark, NJ It is widely known that the brain perceives information before it reaches a person’s awareness. But until now, there was little way to determine what specific mental tasks were taking place prior to the point of conscious awareness.

That has changed with the findings of scientists at Rutgers University in Newark and the University of California, Los Angeles who have developed a highly accurate way to peer into the brain to uncover a person’s mental state and what sort of information is being processed before it reaches awareness. With this new window into the brain, scientists now also are provided with the means of developing a more accurate model of the inner functions of the brain.

As reported in a forthcoming (Oct. 2009) issue of Psychological Science, the findings obtained by Stephen José Hanson, psychology professor at Rutgers; Russell A. Poldrack, professor at UCLA, and Yaroslav Halchenko, (now a post-doctoral student at Dartmouth College), have provided direct evidence that a person’s mental state can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The research also suggests that a more comprehensive approach is needed for mapping brain activity and that the widely held belief that localized areas of the brain are responsible for specific mental functions is misleading and incorrect.

The research was funded with grants from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, the James S. McDonnell Foundation and National Science Foundation. The McDonnell Foundation recently awarded Hanson another $1 million for ongoing studies in this area.

Over the last several years, much of neuroimaging has focused on pinpointing areas of the brain that are uniquely responsible for specific  mental functions, such as learning, memory, fear and love. But this latest research shows that the brain is more complex than that simple model. In their analysis of global brain activity, the researchers found that different processing tasks have their own distinct pattern of neural connections stretching across the brain, similar to the fingerprints that distinctively identify each of us. Rather than being a static pattern, however, the brain is able to arrange and rearrange the connections based on the mental task being undertaken.

“You can’t just pinpoint a specific area of the brain, for example, and say that is the area responsible for our concept of self or that part is the source of our morality,” says Hanson. “It turns out the brain is much more complex and flexible than that. It has the ability to rearrange neural connections for different functions. By examining the pattern of neural connections, you can predict with a high degree of accuracy what mental processing task a person is doing.“

The findings open up the possibility of categorizing a multitude of mental tasks with their unique pattern of neural circuitry and also represent a potential first, early step in developing a means for identifying higher-level mental functions, such as 'lying' or abstract reasoning. They potentially also could pave the way for earlier diagnosis and better treatment of mental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, by offering a means for identifying very subtle abnormalities in brain activity and synchrony.

The research showing that specific mental functions do not correspond directly with certain brain areas but rather a unique pattern of neural connections also provides a more accurate direction for mapping the effective connectivity of the brain. Known as the Connectome Project, the goal of researchers involved in that work is to provide a complete map of the neural circuitry of the central nervous system.

“What our research shows is that if you want to understand human cognitive function, you need to look at system-wide behavior across the entire brain,” explains Hanson. “You can’t do it by looking at single cells or areas. You need to look at many areas of the brain to even understand the simplest of functions.”

The study involved 130 participants, each of whom performed a different mental task, ranging from reading, to memorizing a list, to making complex decisions about whether to take monetary risks, while being scanned using fMRI. The researches were able to identify which of eight tasks participants were involved in with more than 80-percent accuracy by analyzing the participants’ fMRI data against classifications developed from the fMRIs of other individuals. The researchers also were able to identify what class of objects (faces, houses, animals, etc.) a person was viewing before he or she could report that information by analyzing the pattern of brain activity at the back of the brain where information is processed and then conveyed towards the frontal regions associated with awareness.

“It’s the same principle experienced during a car accident. The car accident actually happens tens of a milliseconds before you are aware you have actually been hit,” explains Hanson. “By looking at the back of the brain, we can 'read out,' for example, that a person is looking at dogs and cats before they actually know they are looking at a dog or a cat.”

Unlike most research that has focused on specific areas of the brain, Hanson and his team looked at the pattern of activity across a half million points in the brain. Interestingly, the patterns of neural networks involved in each of the eight tasks on the surface appear very similar. The reason, Hanson explains, is that various mental functions tend to draw on many of the same processes. For example, memorizing a list of words that include the word dog is likely to draw up a memory of a pet, the same as reading a story about a dog would. Using machine learning techniques (a support vector machine), capable of analyzing and categorizing large amounts of data, the researchers were able to identify those slight differences that allowed them to predict the specific mental function of the participants and what information they would report back.

“It’s like looking at two patterns of identical flower arrangements,” says Hanson. “They each may have the same flowers but they will not be arranged exactly in the same manner, consequently leading to slight differences in the overall pattern. Using the pattern analysis methods we have developed, there are clues that can be detected and pulled out.”

 As part of their continuing research, Hanson and his team plan to develop a system for identifying neural connectivity abnormalities to assist with the study of such mental disorders as attention-deficit hyperactivity and autism and to produce a handbook for many of the new tools used for pattern analysis and the classification of mental states based on neuroimaging data.

Contacts:
Helen Paxton, 973/353-5262, E-mail: paxton@andromeda.rutgers.edu
Kathleen Brunet Eagan, 973/214-6387, E-mail: occ@andromeda.rutgers.edu

Source: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Related News:

Research discovers link between epilepsy and autism 16 May 2013, 04:51
Our researchers have found a previously undiscovered link between epileptic seizures and the...

Gladstone Scientists Identify Key Biological Mechanism in Multiple... 4 December 2012, 00:34
Cutting-edge imaging study finds potential new target to combat disease.SAN FRANCISCO,...

Plaque Build-up in Your Brain May Be More Harmful than Having... 17 October 2012, 04:12
MINNEAPOLIS – A new study shows that having a high amount of beta amyloid or "plaques" in the...

New analysis indicates that Novartis drug Gilenya shows significant... 12 October 2012, 03:53
New analysis of two large Phase III studies demonstrates a significant early treatment...

UCSF Study Shows Evidence that Transplanted Neural Stem Cells... 10 October 2012, 16:12
Phase I Investigation Demonstrates Signs of Engraftment and Safety at One Year.A Phase I...

UCLA scientists discover sleeping brain behaves as if it's... 8 October 2012, 04:38
UCLA researchers have for the first time measured the activity of a brain region known to be...

Penn Researchers Create a Universal Map of Vision in the Human Brain 4 October 2012, 12:36
New Technology Confirms "Timeless" Diagram Drafted by WW1 Neurologist.PHILADELPHIA — Nearly 100...

New Insights on Control of Pituitary Hormone Outside of Brain has... 2 October 2012, 04:23
PHILADELPHIA — The hormone prolactin is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain and then...

Genetic Atlas of Human Brain Could Lead to Better Treatments 19 September 2012, 14:38
Research into neurodegenerative diseases could be helped by a project that has shown for the...

Study Shows Brain Function Differences in Women with Anorexia 17 September 2012, 05:28
A new study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience by researchers at the Center...

Sign up for daily newsletter

Subscribe to daily Science News
(a free e-mail delivery powered by Google)

Top Categories



Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%47^479^479B3B2F%%insciences.tpl.php on line 4

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

image

We have launched our peer- reviewed, Open-access journal: Insciences Journal

Recently added

27.11.12
Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilisers Based on Biomass – a Swedish perspective

08.11.12
From Molecular Hollows to Imprinting Strategies – Mass-Sensitive Devices in Host-Guest Chemistry

26.04.12
CdSe/ZnSe Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

23.03.12
Screen-printed Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors for Monitoring Metal Pollutants


 
 

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%76^762^76224BF7%%footerx.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686