Strict Standards: Non-static method SEBenchmark::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESmarty::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 43

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 96

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 104

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguageStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 156

Strict Standards: Declaration of SELanguageStorageMysql::edit() should be compatible with SELanguageStorage::edit() in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Declaration of SELanguageStorageMysql::get() should be compatible with SELanguageStorage::get() in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getSettings() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 107

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 28

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_url.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_url.php on line 78

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_datetime.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 125

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESessionStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/session.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Declaration of SESessionStorageNone::register() should be compatible with SESessionStorage::register($options = Array) in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/storage/none.php on line 16

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/session.php on line 600

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 509

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_admin.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::select() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 181

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 234

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 183

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 189

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getPlugins() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 229

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 62

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 73

Strict Standards: Declaration of rc_rssfeed::delete() should be compatible with rc_model::delete($id = NULL) in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_rssfeed.php on line 132

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 720

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1087

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1595

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1636

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1656

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1756

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1960

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2358

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2362

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2366

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2370

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2418

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2440

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2445

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2449

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2453

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2501

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2523

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2927

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2935

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2943

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2951

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2959

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3300

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3304

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3308

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3312

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3373

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3395

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3434

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3456

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3461

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3465

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3469

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3473

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3783

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3815

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3845

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3868

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3879

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3889

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3911

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3925

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3952

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3978

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4167

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4180

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4201

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4214

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4242

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4256

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4278

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4292

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4496

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4532

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4568

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4594

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4623

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4637

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4668

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4698

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4851

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4876

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4908

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4934

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4988

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5117

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5153

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5186

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5217

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5321

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5353

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5392

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5428

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5463

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5498

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5505

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5790

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5794

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5798

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5802

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5850

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5872

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5877

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5881

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5885

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5933

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5955

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 6392

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7588

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7649

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7730

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 12921

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 12986

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 13011

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 13574

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method rc_toolkit::get_setting() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method rc_toolkit::owner_level() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 25

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 69

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 73

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 82

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 85

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 88

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 68

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_radcodes.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_page.php on line 11

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_gmap.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 298

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 280

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 291

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 320

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 331

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 200

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 211

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 240

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 251

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getLanguages() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 96

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_languages() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 110

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 366

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::call() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 272

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%86^861^861EA998%%article.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%86^861^861EA998%%article.tpl.php on line 7

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 192

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 193

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Only variables should be passed by reference in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 177

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php on line 4

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php on line 5

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 169

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 170

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66
Scientists turn deadly mosquitoes against their own offspring - <br /> <b>Strict Standards</b>: Non-static method SELanguage::_get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in <b>/home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php</b> on line <b>16</b><br /> <br /> <b>Strict Standards</b>: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in <b>/home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php</b> on line <b>614</b><br /> insciences
Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%87^870^870F1A81%%headerx.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%87^870^870F1A81%%headerx.tpl.php on line 7

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686
Keyword Tag Sort by


Categories: Aedes aegypti Dengue virus Insecticides Mosquitoes

Scientists turn deadly mosquitoes against their own offspring

A new field demonstration from Peru suggests that we might be able to co-opt adult mosquitoes into applying insecticides for us, and that they are far more efficient at doing this than humans are.

Researchers from Rothamsted Research, an institute of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council in the UK, working with the health authority in the Peruvian Amazon, have pioneered a new way of controlling the mosquito that carries the potentially deadly dengue virus. They forced adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to transfer insecticides to their own breeding sites, thereby killing any larvae developing there.

The juvenile stages of all mosquitoes develop in aquatic habitats. Emerging adults have to return there to lay their eggs and continue the life cycle. These habitats are key targets for mosquito and disease control campaigns but, because of the cryptic and myriad nature of potential breeding sites, their treatment with insecticides is usually difficult, time consuming, and expensive.

Aedes aegypti
Aedes aegypti



Scientists were able to achieve almost total coverage of the aquatic larval habitat by treating a small proportion of the area where adult mosquitoes rest with a safe, potent and persistent insecticide. This insecticide can be carried by adult mosquitoes but only kills juvenile stages. Amplification of the effect occurs because every adult mosquito completes several resting and egg-laying cycles during its lifetime. This results in multiple opportunities for contamination of the aquatic habitat.

The use of the adult mosquito as the transfer vehicle ensures that the larvicides are very accurately targeted: the more popular the breeding site, the greater the transfer of insecticide and the more effective the control.

The technique is truly novel, and could be implemented immediately. One of the researchers at the Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania has developed a mathematical model of the process to explore how the Peruvian team might apply their technique to the mosquito species which carry malaria and filariasis.

Related links

. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

. Armed Forces Pest Management Board

. University of California, Davis

. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

. Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania

Notes to Editors

» Globally, 50,000,000 annual dengue virus infections result in 500,000 cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 22,000 deaths. The majority are transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

» In the context of the environmental effects of larvicides, it is worth noting that they will be applied anyway - whether conventionally disseminated or using this new method. The targeted water bodies are urban: from discarded tins to sewage seeps. These are not important ecologically and, in any case, the risk posed by the mosquitoes that breed there is far greater than any environmental hazard to non-target insects.

» Pyriproxyfen, the insecticide used, is a juvenile hormone analogue. It is already registered for public health use. It has drinking water approval from the WHO of 300 ppb which is 1000 times the dose needed to control Aedes aegypti.

» The work took place in the Peruvian Amazon, in the city of Iquitos: the most populous city in the world that cannot be reached by road. It has an intractable dengue problem. Biologists and technicians from the local health authority helped conduct the trials. The lead biologist was Elvira Zamora Perea.

» Greg Devine from Rothamsted Research led the investigation whilst working with the US Navy and the University of California Davis. He lived in Iquitos between 2006 and 2008, supported by the Deployed War Fighter Protection Program, administered by the US Armed Forces Pest Management Board.

» Amy Morrison, an epidemiologist from UC Davis, based in Iquitos and Jeff Stancil, a US Navy entomologist from the Naval Medical Research Center Detachment in Peru, were co-applicants on the grant.

» Gerry Killeen of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, based full time at the Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania created a simple model that helps interpret the technique and suggests that it might have applications for the control of malaria vectors.

 

Rothamsted Research is based in Hertfordshire and is one of the largest agricultural research institutes in the country. It is sponsored by the BBSRC.

 

Contacts: Greg Devine (greg.devine@bbsrc.ac.uk) Tel. 01582 763133 ext 2329. For further information, please contact the Rothamsted Research Press Office Tel: 01582 763133 ext 2485 or email Mary-Louise Burnett (mary-louise.burnett@bbsrc.ac.uk) or Adelia de Paula (adelia.depaula@bbsrc.ac.uk)

Source: Rothamsted Research

Related News:

Mozzie Protein Alert to Invading Viruses 2 October 2012, 04:02
CSIRO scientists have discovered how mosquitoes develop viral immunity, potentially leading to...

Genetically Engineered Bacteria Prevent Mosquitoes from... 16 July 2012, 16:59
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute have genetically modified a...

Malaria Discovery Gives Hope for New Drugs and Vaccines 31 August 2011, 05:03
An investigation into the mysterious inner workings of the malaria parasite has revealed that it...

Wolbachia Bacteria Reduce Parasite Levels and Kill the Mosquito... 20 May 2011, 08:35
Wolbachia are bacteria that infect many insects, including mosquitoes. However, Wolbachia do not...

Researchers find gene-silencing nanoparticles may put end to pesky... 19 July 2010, 09:27
MANHATTAN -- Summer just wouldn't be complete without mosquitoes nipping at exposed skin....

New Understanding of Dengue Fever Could Help With Vaccine 7 May 2010, 09:24
Study shows that some of the human immune system's defences against the virus that causes...

MSU Scientists Find Bacterium Can Halt Dengue Virus Transmission 2 April 2010, 07:10
EAST LANSING, Mich. — Dengue fever – caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes –...

NTU Researchers Complete The World’s First In-Depth Study of The... 6 February 2010, 09:10
Groundbreaking research done at Singapore's Nanyang Technological University’s (NTU)...

Bad News For Mosquitoes: Yale Study May Lead to Better Traps,... 3 February 2010, 13:25
New Haven, Conn. — Yale University researchers have found more than two dozen scent receptors...

Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Protects Monkeys from Chikungunya Virus 28 January 2010, 15:20
An experimental vaccine developed using non-infectious virus-like particles (VLP) has protected...

Sign up for daily newsletter

Subscribe to daily Science News
(a free e-mail delivery powered by Google)

Top Categories



Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%47^479^479B3B2F%%insciences.tpl.php on line 4

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

image

We have launched our peer- reviewed, Open-access journal: Insciences Journal

Recently added

27.11.12
Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilisers Based on Biomass – a Swedish perspective

08.11.12
From Molecular Hollows to Imprinting Strategies – Mass-Sensitive Devices in Host-Guest Chemistry

26.04.12
CdSe/ZnSe Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

23.03.12
Screen-printed Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors for Monitoring Metal Pollutants


 
 

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%76^762^76224BF7%%footerx.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686