Strict Standards: Non-static method SEBenchmark::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESmarty::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 43

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 96

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 104

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguageStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 156

Strict Standards: Declaration of SELanguageStorageMysql::edit() should be compatible with SELanguageStorage::edit() in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Declaration of SELanguageStorageMysql::get() should be compatible with SELanguageStorage::get() in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getSettings() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 107

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 28

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_url.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_url.php on line 78

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_datetime.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 125

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESessionStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/session.php on line 49

Strict Standards: Declaration of SESessionStorageNone::register() should be compatible with SESessionStorage::register($options = Array) in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/storage/none.php on line 16

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/session/session.php on line 600

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 509

Strict Standards: Non-static method SESession::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_admin.php on line 208

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::select() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 181

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 234

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 183

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 189

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getPlugins() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 229

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 62

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 73

Strict Standards: Declaration of rc_rssfeed::delete() should be compatible with rc_model::delete($id = NULL) in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_rssfeed.php on line 132

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 720

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1087

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1595

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1636

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1656

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1756

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 1960

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2358

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2362

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2366

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2370

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2418

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2440

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2445

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2449

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2453

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2501

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2523

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2927

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2935

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2943

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2951

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 2959

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3300

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3304

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3308

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3312

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3373

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3395

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3434

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3456

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3461

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3465

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3469

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3473

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3783

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3815

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3845

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3868

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3879

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3889

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3911

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3925

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3952

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 3978

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4167

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4180

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4201

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4214

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4242

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4256

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4278

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4292

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4496

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4532

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4568

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4594

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4623

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4637

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4668

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4698

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4851

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4876

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4908

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4934

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 4988

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5117

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5153

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5186

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5217

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5321

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5353

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5392

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5428

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5463

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5498

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5505

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5790

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5794

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5798

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5802

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5850

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5872

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5877

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5881

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5885

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5933

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 5955

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 6392

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7588

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7649

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 7730

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 12921

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 12986

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 13011

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_radcodes_rss.php on line 13574

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method rc_toolkit::get_setting() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method rc_toolkit::owner_level() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_rssfeed.php on line 25

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_article.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 67

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 69

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 73

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_event.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 82

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 85

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_group.php on line 88

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_classified.php on line 68

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_radcodes.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::register() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_vid.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_page.php on line 11

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header_gmap.php on line 10

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/header.php on line 298

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 280

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 291

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 320

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 331

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 200

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 211

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 240

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SEDatabase::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 251

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_user.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 559

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECore::getLanguages() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 14

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 96

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_languages() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_core.php on line 110

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 366

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::exists() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 246

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::call() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method SE_Hook::create() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/class_hook.php on line 272

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::info() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/footer.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 334

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%86^861^861EA998%%article.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%86^861^861EA998%%article.tpl.php on line 7

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 192

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 193

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Only variables should be passed by reference in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage/mysql.php on line 177

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php on line 4

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php on line 5

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 169

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECache::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/storage.php on line 170

Strict Standards: Non-static method SECacheStorage::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/cache/cache.php on line 66
Historical Photographs Expose Decline in Florida's Reef Fish, New Scripps Study Finds - <br /> <b>Strict Standards</b>: Non-static method SELanguage::_get() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in <b>/home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%05^053^053AB562%%header_article2.tpl.php</b> on line <b>16</b><br /> <br /> <b>Strict Standards</b>: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in <b>/home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php</b> on line <b>614</b><br /> insciences
Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_preload_multi() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%87^870^870F1A81%%headerx.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 529

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%87^870^870F1A81%%headerx.tpl.php on line 7

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686
Keyword Tag Sort by


Categories: Ecology Fish Life sciences

Historical Photographs Expose Decline in Florida's Reef Fish, New Scripps Study Finds

Snapshots trace shrinking 'trophy fish' over a generation of sport fishing

 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography / University of California, San Diego

A unique study by a scientist at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego has provided fresh evidence of fishing's impact on marine ecosystems. Scripps Oceanography graduate student researcher Loren McClenachan accessed archival photographs spanning more than five decades to analyze and calculate a drastic decline of so-called "trophy fish" caught around coral reefs surrounding Key West, Florida.



Trophy fish caught on Key West charter boats: a) 1957, b) early 1980s and c) 2007.

Trophy fish caught on Key West charter boats: a) 1957, b) early 1980s and c) 2007.

In a paper published online in January and printed in an upcoming issue of the journal

Conservation Biology

, McClenachan describes a stark 88 percent decline in the estimated weight of large predatory fish imaged in black-and-white 1950s sport fishing photos compared to the relatively diminutive catches photographed in modern pictures. In a companion paper being published in the

Endangered Species Research

journal, McClenachan employs similar methods to document the decline of the globally endangered goliath grouper fish.



"These results provide evidence of major changes over the last half century and a window into an earlier, less disturbed fish community..." McClenachan said in the

Conservation Biology

paper.



McClenachan's studies are part of an emerging field called historical marine ecology, in which scientists study photographs, archives, news accounts and other records to help understand changes in the ocean ecosystem over time and establish baselines for future ecosystem restoration.



McClenachan believes that historical ecology can not only help describe the structure of ecosystems that existed in the recent past, but can be used to establish goals for restoration of large predators, both on land and in the water.



While conducting research for her doctoral thesis on coral reef ecosystems of the Florida Keys, McClenachan came across what she describes as a gold mine of photographic data at the Monroe County Library in Key West. Hundreds of archived photographs, snapped by professional photographer Charles Anderson, depict sport fishing passengers posing next to a hanging board used to determine the largest "trophy fish" catches of the day. All of the photographs document sport fishing trips targeting coral reef fishes around the Florida Keys. McClenachan supplemented the study with her own photographs and observations on sport fishing trips in 2007.



Loren McClenachan

Loren McClenachan

In all, she measured and analyzed some 1,275 fish from photographs.



McClenachan calculated the mean size of the prize catches-including sharks, large groupers and other hefty fish in early photographs-and their decline from nearly two meters (6.5 feet) in length in the 1950s to contemporary catches of small fish such as snappers measuring a mere 34 centimeters (approximately one foot) on average. The fishes' average estimated weight dropped from nearly 19.9 kilograms (43.8 pounds) to 2.3 kilograms (5 pounds) from 1956 to 2007. The average length of sharks declined by more than 50 percent in 50 years, the photographs revealed.



"While the photographs in this study do not provide a direct measurement... they clearly demonstrate that large fish were more abundant in the past," said McClenachan.



Yet while McClenachan's study depicts significant changes over the last 50 years, she indicates in the paper that evidence exists showing that even the Florida Keys ecosystems of the 1950s were not pristine. Commercial fishing in the 1930s and 40s reduced populations of sharks, while numbers of large groupers declined through commercial fishing since at least the 1880s.



"The ongoing debate about the status of fisheries in the Florida Keys is a classic problem of the Shifting Baselines syndrome," says Scripps Professor Jeremy Jackson. "Managers mistakenly assume that what they saw in the 1980s was pristine, but most prized fish species had been reduced to a small fraction of their pristine abundance long before. Historical ecology provides the critical missing data to evaluate what we lost before modern scientific surveys began."



Trophy fish caught on Key West charter boats (1958).

Trophy fish caught on Key West charter boats (1958).
Photo courtesy of Charles Anderson.

"I think the photos in this very original paper will make lots of people change their mind," said Daniel Pauly, a professor at the University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre and Zoology Department.



In separate studies, Scripps researchers recently uncovered fishing damages to coral reefs in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Scientists studying at the Central Pacific Ocean's Line Islands archipelago have shown that coral reef ecosystems experience drastic changes, including evidence of bacteria-infested corals, when large fish are extracted from an island reef through overfishing, as compared with healthy coral ecosystems off islands that are not fished.



As an interesting side note, McClenachan mentions in her paper that the price of sport fishing trips has not declined in conjunction with the size and weight of the caught fish. Although trophy fish dropped more than 88 percent in average fish weight, the trip costs remained steady, ranging from $40 to $48 per person (adjusted for inflation), per day between 1956 and 2007.



Trophy fish caught on Key West charter boats (2007).

Trophy fish caught on Key West charter boats (2007).
Photo courtesy of Loren McClenachan.

"... The continued viability of sport fishing based on increasingly small individuals in a degraded reef environment indicates a decoupling of the health of the marine environment from the value of the marine-based tourism industry," McClenachan noted in the paper.



Funding for the study was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Preserve America Initiative, NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service and NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research Cooperative Institute; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STAR (Science to Achieve Results) Fellowship; and the Census of Marine Life History of Marine Animal Populations.




# # #

Note to broadcast and cable producers: University of California, San Diego provides an on-campus satellite uplink facility for live or pre-recorded television interviews. Please phone or e-mail the media contact listed above to arrange an interview.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, at University of California, San Diego, is one of the oldest, largest and most important centers for global science research and education in the world. The National Research Council has ranked Scripps first in faculty quality among oceanography programs nationwide. Now in its second century of discovery, the scientific scope of the institution has grown to include biological, physical, chemical, geological, geophysical and atmospheric studies of the earth as a system. Hundreds of research programs covering a wide range of scientific areas are under way today in 65 countries. The institution has a staff of about 1,300, and annual expenditures of approximately $155 million from federal, state and private sources. Scripps operates one of the largest U.S. academic fleets with four oceanographic research ships and one research platform for worldwide exploration.

 

Contact: Annie Reisewitz, Phone: 858.534.3624, scrippsnews@ucsd.edu

Source: Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Related News:

Will changes in climate wipe out mammals in Arctic and sub-Arctic... 14 January 2013, 09:02
The climate changes depicted by climatologists up to the year 2080 will benefit most mammals...

Drought affects Mediterranean truffle harvest 28 November 2012, 02:56
An international research team under the lead of Ulf Büntgen and Simon Egli from the Swiss...

Corals Have Evolved Four Lifestyles 1 October 2012, 13:19
A new study by Simon Fraser University researchers will help scientists better understand and...

Fish eaters run lower risk of heart attack – despite some mercury... 24 September 2012, 05:47
2012-09-24 -- Eat fish, but avoid fish with the most pollutants. This is the conclusion drawn by...

Tracking Fish Through a Coral Reef Seascape Ear-Bone 'Tree... 5 September 2012, 09:17
Ocean scientists have long known that juvenile coral reef fishes use coastal seagrass and...

Ecosystems cope with stress more effectively the greater the... 5 September 2012, 09:09
Ecosystems with a high degree of biodiversity can cope with more stress, such as higher...

Fish Learn to Cope in a High CO2 World 3 July 2012, 05:45
Some coral reef fish may be better prepared to cope with rising CO2 in the world’s oceans –...

Marine Reserves Provide Baby Bonus to Fisheries 25 May 2012, 03:13
An international team of scientists has gathered the first conclusive evidence that marine...

Cod Has a Key Role in the Whole Baltic Sea 24 April 2012, 03:40
A new investigation put in evidence the key role of cod as regulator of the whole Baltic Sea...

Singapore Scientists Discover Fish Fear Factor 28 February 2012, 07:03
Research breakthrough provides insights to a 70-year-old puzzle on the nature of the fish alarm...

Sign up for daily newsletter

Subscribe to daily Science News
(a free e-mail delivery powered by Google)

Top Categories



Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%47^479^479B3B2F%%insciences.tpl.php on line 4

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686

image

We have launched our peer- reviewed, Open-access journal: Insciences Journal

Recently added

27.11.12
Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilisers Based on Biomass – a Swedish perspective

08.11.12
From Molecular Hollows to Imprinting Strategies – Mass-Sensitive Devices in Host-Guest Chemistry

26.04.12
CdSe/ZnSe Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

23.03.12
Screen-printed Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors for Monitoring Metal Pollutants


 
 

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/smarty/templates_c/%%76^762^76224BF7%%footerx.tpl.php on line 6

Strict Standards: Non-static method SELanguage::_init() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home3/nextron/public_html/include/language/language.php on line 686